Epistemology

Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?

EDMUND GETTIER
Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst. This short piece, published in 1963, seemed to many decisively to
refute an otherwise attractive analysis of knowledge. It stimulated a renewed
effort, still ongoing, to clarify exactly what knowledge comprises.

Gettier problem

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem with our understanding of knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called “Gettier-cases”) overturned the long-held justified true belief (or JTB) account of knowledge. On the JTB account, knowledge is equivalent to justified true belief, and if all three conditions (justification, truth, and belief) are met of a given claim, then we have knowledge of that proposition. In his three-page 1963 paper, titled Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, Gettier showed, by means of two counterexamples, that there were cases where individuals had justified true belief of a claim, but still failed to know it. Thus, Gettier showed that the JTB account was inadequate—it could not account for all of knowledge. The JTB account was first credited to Plato, though Plato argued against this very account of knowledge in the Theaetetus (210a).

The term “Gettier problem”, or “Gettier case”, or even the verb Gettiered is sometimes used to describe any case in epistemology that purports to repudiate the JTB account.

Responses to Gettier’s paper have been numerous. Some rejected Gettier’s examples, while others sought to adjust the JTB account to blunt the force of counterexamples. Gettier problems have even found their way into experiments, where the intuitive responses of people of varying demographics to Gettier cases have been studied.


Faith is believing what you know ain’t so

Mark Twain

The difference between garbage and raw materials is that garbage is a motley mix while raw materials are collated. That is, if one keeps left overs and scrap in separated bins of aluminium cans, paper, organic waste, and so on, then they are no longer waste but materials available for some useful purpose. However, it is not enough to collate the waste, we must have an use for the different materials or we then just have clutter.

An analogue relation exist between data and information. If data is to be useful information, it must be collated, processed, and delivered to the appropriate decision maker in time and form.

A related concept is knowledge. I cannot articulate with precision what is knowledge but it is related to the ability to act appropriately. The management of knowledge.is a key challenge for organizations. Most of what experts know is not even conscious and cannot be articulated. The experts do not really know how they do what they do. At the brain level most skills are encoded in the basal ganglia and not in the thinking parts of the brain. It is a set of experiences and patterns that are acquired by doing or executing the skill. Individual knowledge becomes for better or worst institutional knowledge trough tradition and apprenticeships.

Published on Jun 3, 2013

UNANSWERED QUESTIONS MEGA-COLLAB:http://youtu.be/UFydagCS9fg

Follow me: http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce

LINKS/SOURCES:

music by: http://www.youtube.com/user/jakechudnow/

song at end: “Pious Reflection” by Paul Mottram downloaded fromhttp://www.audionetwork.com/
it’s on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kszd5…

Human senses:

http://science.howstuffworks.com/life…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense

Color illusion: http://loriputnampaints.blogspot.com….

Audio illusion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9VMf…

temperature illusion: http://exs.exploratorium.edu/exhibits…

Tactile illusions: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tactile_…

epistemology wiki pages:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epistomo…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_o…

proof:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof_(…)
http://thesaurus.com/browse/proof

a priori truth [pdf]: http://consequently.org/papers/aprior…

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_priori…)

rotating brain gif: http://lcni.uoregon.edu/~dow/Space_so…

neuroscience of memory:

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/309…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuroana…
http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/12…
http://www.brainfacts.org/sensing-thi…

LTP:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pwp5sf…
http://www.expertsmind.com/topic/neur…

engrams: http://brainsandcognition.wordpress.c…

storage of human brain: http://www.scientificamerican.com/art…

SKYentists: https://twitter.com/nice_mustard/stat…

philosophy of science:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Construc…

The Matrix defense:

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/idea…
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Matr…

solipsism:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solipsism
http://philosophynow.org/issues/57/Ho…
http://onlinephilosophyclub.com/forum…

Martin Gardner books:

http://bit.ly/19CvvoG
http://amzn.to/Zou74W

why cats like keyboards: http://kotaku.com/5991046/why-cats-lo…

Published on Jul 2, 2013

FOLLOW MICHAEL STEVENS: http://www.Twitter.com/tweetsauce
SUBSCRIBE: http://bit.ly/POIaN7
SOURCES & more creepy stuff below:

John Bergeron’s SINGING ANDROIDS [videos]:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rLy-Aw…
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zFl_W…
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7-9v7a…
website: http://www.androidworld.com/prod68.htm

SHAYE ST. John [videos]:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GzobV_…
http://www.youtube.com/user/ShayeSain…

“Die in a week” image from MarbleHornets:http://www.youtube.com/user/MarbleHor…

Nightmare-fuel image collections:

http://creepypasta.wikia.com/wiki/Nig…)
http://imgur.com/a/zpxZj?gallery
http://imgur.com/a/fcz3G

dot jpg?? http://i.imgur.com/82taS.jpg

scared of heights? don’t watch this: http://bit.ly/h29PLp

More info about “The Hands Resist Him” painting:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Hand…

Creepypasta (unnerving stories):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creepypasta

aphobia: people who don’t feel fear:http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/b…

sad, terrifying study on learning fear (Little Albert Experiment):http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_A…

scariest things: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear#Com…

fear processing in brain: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear_pro…

Stephen King on types of scary stuff:http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/84666…

Claude Levi Strauss on masks and why CLOWNS ARE SCARY:http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/a…

Uncanny Valley:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncanny_…
http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/11/health/…

image metrics video: http://www.awntv.com/videos/image-met…

paper on “creepiness”: http://academia.edu/2465121/Creepiness

famous Cognitive Dissonace study on behavior [with video]:http://www.simplypsychology.org/cogni…

High Place Phenomenon study:http://www.nbcnews.com/health/weird-u…

HPP paper: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22…

terrible and terrific etymology (it’s called “amelioration”):http://english.stackexchange.com/ques…

Laurie Lipton does GREAT creepy drawings:http://www.laurielipton.com/drawings/

creepy people LITERALLY give you chills:http://www.scientificamerican.com/pod…

creepy things kids say: http://www.uncommon-parenting.com/201…

these are scary: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Broadcas…

creepy subreddits (some may be nsfw):

http://www.reddit.com/r/creepy/
http://www.reddit.com/r/creepygifs
http://www.reddit.com/r/unnerving
http://www.reddit.com/r/FearMe/
http://www.reddit.com/r/scaredshitless
http://www.reddit.com/r/shortscarysto…

what I listened to while researching this episode (playlist):http://bit.ly/13pvoMb

***************

music by
http://www.YouTube.com/JakeChudnow
trip hop and ‘spooky’ music from http://www.audionetwork.com

Published on Dec 9, 2013

Michael Stevens the persona behind the YouTube sensation Vsauce, is an online personality with an entertaining approach to explaining the science behind seemingly ordinary, everyday phenomena. Michael’s videos have been watched over 400 million times and Vsauce’s 4.5 million subscribers continues to add an astonishing 15 thousand subscribers each day. Michael lives in London where he works for Google as an in-house consultant for other creators on the platform.
YouTube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/Vsauce/

http://www.tedxvienna.at/
http://www.facebook.com/tedxvienna

November 2, 2013 at Volkstheater Wien, Vienna, Austria.

Advertisements

2 thoughts on “Epistemology

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s