Published on May 16, 2013
The possibility that our personal memory can play strange tricks on us has been the focus of Giuliana’s research for many years. Her work, based at the University of Hull, has also examined the cognitive and behavioural consequences of suggestion. Giuliana is a recognised memory expert and has recently been part of Channel 4’s documentary The Boy Who Can’t Forget where she examined Aurelien, a boy who claims he can remember every day of his life. This condition is considered impossible by current models of memory.
Edmund Gettier is Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts,
Amherst. This short piece, published in 1963, seemed to many decisively to
refute an otherwise attractive analysis of knowledge. It stimulated a renewed
effort, still ongoing, to clarify exactly what knowledge comprises.
The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem with our understanding of knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called “Gettier-cases”) overturned the long-held justified true belief (or JTB) account of knowledge. On the JTB account, knowledge is equivalent to justified true belief, and if all three conditions (justification, truth, and belief) are met of a given claim, then we have knowledge of that proposition. In his three-page 1963 paper, titled Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, Gettier showed, by means of two counterexamples, that there were cases where individuals had justified true belief of a claim, but still failed to know it. Thus, Gettier showed that the JTB account was inadequate—it could not account for all of knowledge. The JTB account was first credited to Plato, though Plato argued against this very account of knowledge in the Theaetetus (210a).
The term “Gettier problem”, or “Gettier case”, or even the verb Gettiered is sometimes used to describe any case in epistemology that purports to repudiate the JTB account.
Responses to Gettier’s paper have been numerous. Some rejected Gettier’s examples, while others sought to adjust the JTB account to blunt the force of counterexamples. Gettier problems have even found their way into experiments, where the intuitive responses of people of varying demographics to Gettier cases have been studied.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM, previously SMET) is an acronym that refers to the academic disciplines of science[note 1], technology, engineeringand mathematics. The term is typically used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns and immigration policy. Education emphasizing STEM disciplines is considered to be more beneficial to the student than the previous generation of education standards that emphasizes broad “core” disciplines and social skills instead.
The acronym arose in common use shortly after an interagency meeting on science education held at the US National Science Foundation chaired by the then NSF director Rita Colwell. A director from the Office of Science division of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists, Dr. Peter Faletra, suggested the change from the older acronym SMET to STEM. Dr. Colwell, expressing some dislike for the older acronym, responded by suggesting NSF to institute the change. One of the first NSF projects to use the acronym was STEMTEC, the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Teacher Education Collaborative at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, which was funded in 1997.